All too often, by excluding, teasing or tormenting other teens, cliques serve a negative function. They may turn non-members into scapegoats. Usually, among females, there is verbal abuse, which may be extraordinarily hurtful. Among males, the abuse may be verbal, but it is frequently also physical.
It is important to draw a distinction between cliques and gangs. Like cliques, gangs offer an emotional bond. But gangs, which are even more controlling than cliques, seem to be cliques taken to the extreme. Members of gangs view fellow members as family. Secrets are kept within the gang. - clickie -
_____________The queen bee is the clique's leader, usually a popular young lady. Characteristics often associated to her are a pleasant appearance, charisma, skill in manipulation and monetary power. The queen bee has substantial influence and power over the clique, and is usually envied and looked upon as a role model by clique members and at times by outsiders to the clique. Her actions are closely followed and imitated, even though they may not be of a positive nature.
With this, the social role of the "outcast" is defined, as individuals that the queen bee dislikes may be classified by her as such, thus encouraging clique members to victimize the outcast, in order to continue to be part of the clique or to receive praise from the queen bee.
In most cliques there is, at least to some degree, a power struggle for the position of the queen bee. Hence, the clique's leader might change from time to time, for example due to a member (or non-member) exceeding the queen bee's abilities, or members getting fed up with the Queen Bee's antics and thus attracting followers of the old clique leader. Outside influences may also act upon the social structure of the clique, such as changing interests or increasing maturity among clique members. - clickie -
Bullying is the intentional tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. There is currently no legal definition of bullying.
In colloquial speech, bullying often describes a form of harassment perpetrated by an abuser who possesses more physical and/or social power and dominance than the victim. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a target. The harassment can be verbal, physical and/or emotional. - clickie -
Characteristics of bulliesResearch indicates that adults who bully have personalities that are authoritarian, combined with a strong need to control or dominate. It has also been suggested that a deficit in social skills and a prejudicial view of subordinates can be particular risk factors.
Further studies have shown that while envy and resentment may be motives for bullying, there is little evidence to suggest that bullies suffer from any deficit in self esteem (as this would make it difficult to bully). However, there are instances where bullying takes place only for humor. It is generally used in this instance by children who were bullied earlier in their lives, on the assumption that those who bullied them derived fun from their acts and that this would teach the victims to do the same. However many bullies have never suffered bullying themselves and only bully others because it is fun and it has nothing to do with being bullied when they were younger, to impress other people or to be socialy accepted. Bullies say these things are the reason for their actions because they won't be punished as badly.
Researchers have identified other risk factors such as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions.
Bullying may also be "tradition" in settings where an age group or higher rank feels superior than lowerclassmen.
It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin in childhood:
- "If aggressive behaviour is not challenged in childhood, there is a danger that it may become habitual. Indeed, there is research evidence, to indicate that bullying during childhood puts children at risk of criminal behaviour and domestic violence in adulthood."
A gang is defined as three or more individuals that hang together on a continuing basis, during both criminal and non-criminal activity. They distinguish themselves apart from therest of society in some manner, which could be clothing, hairstyles, communication or anyother means. A gang may or may not claim turf. However, one of the simplest and mostfunctional definitions is that a gang is a group of people who form an allegiance for acommon purpose and engage in violent, unlawful, or criminal activity.
Many gang members adopt nicknames when recruited into the group if they do not already have one. The gang tends to select a name that fits the individual's physical orpsychological characteristics.
Leader: They are assumed by a member who demonstrates or asserts dominant control at a particulartime. His leadership may continue for the particular incident or a limited time thereafter.With smaller gangs, however, it is more likely that a single individual will become arecognized leader.
Gang membership extracts a terrible toll from the Lives of all who contact the members. Parents and relatives of gang members live in a double fear; one for their families safetyand that of their gang related child.
Non-gang member friends are cast aside and soon the youth's only friends are gangmembers.
Gang membership, although a temporary phase for some youth, will shape the individual's future. - clickie -